Fundamentalists and Independent Christian Beliefs
Fundamentalism is not only a Church designation. It also defines an entire movement by early 20th century Christian as a response to liberal theology from Germany and elsewhere that focused on "higher criticism" and the integrity of the Scriptures. Coupled with this challenge to orthodoxy was the cache that Darwin´s evolutionary theory of natural selection gained culminating in the Scopes Trial in 1925.
Largely independent, Fundamentalist churches may retain a loose organization that is not as structured as typical American denominations. Cooperative efforts more often define their organizations than anything else. These efforts have culminated in various radio and television ministries, missionary outreach and Bible colleges and seminaries.
Among the most influential writings intended to counter liberal trends in denominations and seminaries that trained their ministers was The Fundamentals...
Luminaries in the Fundamentalist and Independent Church movement include D.L. Moody (1837-1899) who preached for conversion to tens of thousands at his Church in Chicago. John Nelson Darby stressed Biblical prophecy and taught among other things, the Seven Dispensations; that history and the future of earth and mankind is divided into periods where God interacts with creation differently according to His eternal plan. The final phase includes a millennial reign of Christ on earth over Believers that Christ will inaugurate after His Second Advent. C.I Scofield wrote one of the first "Study Bibles" with reference notes that further explained Scriptural interpretation through Fundamentalist lens.
Among the most influential writings intended to counter liberal trends in denominations and seminaries that trained their ministers was The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth written between 1910 and 1915 by scholars within the Fundamentalist movement.
Later, one of the key predictions of Fundamentalist theology came true when, in 1948, the nation of Israel was established. The Cold War from the 1950s on continued the fervor as theologians discussed potential worldwide annihilation through nuclear war, great nations fighting other nations culminating in the "Rapture" of Christ´s Church when He returns briefly to spare them from earth final demise.
Christians who regard themselves as Fundamentalist/Independent include groups as diverse as the American Evangelical Christian Churches, Baptist Bible Fellowship International, Baptist Missionary Association of America, the Berean Fundamental Church, Bible Fellowship Church, Bible Presbyterian Church, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Christian Brethren (aka Plymouth Brethren), Conservative Baptist Association of American, Grace Gospel Fellowship, Independent Fundamental Church of America and tens of thousands of churches not associated with any of these organizations.
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